X-ray radiation is used any many different Physics research applications. A notable instance are particle colliders. Particle colliders are similar in principle to synchrotrons, except colliders are interested in the by-products of particle collisions at very high energies, and not just X-ray radiation.
These high energy collisions allow scientists to probe the inner structure of subatomic particles and have led to discoveries of quarks. Collisions of this high energy can emit X-ray radiation and will require proper shielding of equipment and personnel.
Another field that encounters high energy radiation are nuclear reactors, both fission and fusion. Fission reactors require shielding between people and the fissile material. Additional care must be taken since the radioactive substance can move between locations. Fusion reactors also have X-ray shielding requirements. Typically, Fusion reactors are producing large amounts of high energy neutrons than can cause nuclear reactions that emit high energy radiation.